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INTRODUCTION
This page offers non-coin monies, such as animal forms, hats, ingots, and bidor, rings, canoes, etc. These include monies of the maritime empires when flat coinage was less standardized, isolated cultures of later times, possible barter or by-weight forms, and monies with properties of charms, or strictly charms, and controversial items. In Malaysia, Phuket, Pahang, Perak and Selangor were the centers for non-coin tin monies which circulated throughout the peninsula and Indonesia, while Java and other islands in the archipelago produced unusual currencies from early times. Many of the items offered here are recent finds from river dredging and metal detectoring; river water seems to have preserved types which had become scarce as land finds. Nearly all of the pre-Colonial coinage of the region, both conventional and ethnographic forms, was in varying alloys of tin, abundant in the region, and lead, plus copper, ganza, though generally referred to as "tin."      References useful for these series include: Singh, Saran The Coins of Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei 2nd ed. 1996; various works by Mitchiner, Michael, especially an article The Circulation of Tin in Palembang (Sumatra): It's Monetary and Non-Monetary Functions: Tin and Lead Ingots, Animals and Talismans, J.ONS 2013, pp.25-32; Quiggin, A.H. A Survey of Primitive Money, 1949; Opitz, Charles An Ethnographic Study of Traditional Monies, 2000

ABOUT THE LISTINGS BELOW . . .
Click on the thumbnail to see a sample item, then click on stock numbers to the right to see more offerings. You will get the item in the scan, unless noted "SAMPLE" in the description & photo. These are flatbed scans, not photos, so the actual items will look much better in three dimensions! Prices in US$. I collect this series myself, so glad to consider offers and trades. When you click on the large thumbnails to the left of the category titles, you will see a larger sampling of items often from my collection.

HOW TO ORDER
To order (or inquire), copy and paste the entire line, except the photo, for each item into an email . Since there is often more than one item for a listing line, delete the text for ones you do not want. I will respond shortly with an invoice. No reply? Try THIS. Or click this ORDERING INFO link for more details. I'm always glad to take your phone order: 425-369-1725 8:00 AM to 7:00 PM USA Pacific; mornings best, weekends worst. I take most forms of payment. I charge only the USPS rates, often under $3 for a few items, or $8.30 flat-rate for several (USA). International orders welcome. Have you checked other categories of Ethnographic Monies I have for sale?

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ANIMAL MONEY & CHARMS / Gambar
     Probably the region's most exotic and best-known "currency," the most detailed information is found in Tin 'Hat' and Animal Money by Wm. Shaw and Mohd. Kassim Haji Ali (1970). Saran Singh lists them under Perak and Selangor states (p.200+), and a more standardized form of cock with rings under Kedah and Perlis (p.260). The commonest are cockerel (buaya), fish (ikan), dragon, and tortoise (kura-kura), with elephant (gajah) and a wide variety of other animals, etc. known. S&A speculate that they were cast either as weights, or by pawang (medicine men) as substitutes for sacrifices upon opening a mine, and gradually proliferated as both ceremonial adjuncts and in a limited way as money. Even the more uniform cock-with-rings type shows no weight pattern. Singh says, "During the reign of Sultan Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Abidin Muazzam Shah (1710-1733), animal money (fighting cock perched on rings) was introduced in Kedah," information not in S&A. Pridmore was doubtful that any were money. Mitchiner (2013, p.27) distinguishes "tin animals found at Palembang, which were not money" from the cockerel-with-rings form.
     Clearly the figures on stands were intended as something other than exchange. Some have age and legitimacy as charms, but other highly detailed pieces are modern and deceptive. A trustworthy source in Palembang rated three pieces that I had bought from other sellers. Thin, uniface (flat-backed) objects also are clearly unsuitable for money; these include various bird shapes, horseman, lion rampant. My guess is these were decorative or amuletic facings for sea chests or cabinetry. Delicate, two-sided openwork figures of ships and fish frames containing coin trees are found; I think some of these are old, and some not. Perhaps pieces in these categories continue to be made (and sometimes bring good money), either for deceptive sale, or current use as charms.
      Small double rings joined by pointed bars (SS#20d) showing no evidence of attachment to a cockerel, could have served as small change. Specimens from several purchased lots show variations such as neck 3d pointed, 2d pointed, plain, or absent; asymmetrical circles; size & thickness. No weight pattern is found, though pieces of similar form can be found with near-identical weights. There are also fancy varieties. The rings could have been charms themselves as this pair on a stand at center suggests. See this Zeno category.
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTION (click red stock numbers for images)
PRICE
12a   COCKEREL, with two rings. This form of the cockerel, with sharp beak, upswept tail, and rings above and below seems to be the most standardized, with widths average 40mm, weights around 5-9gm. This: 45x38mm, 9.80gm     Shown 300% $75.00
12e   COCKEREL, with two rings. This form of the cockerel, with sharp beak, upswept tail, and rings above and below seems to be the most standardized, with widths average 40mm, weights around 5-9gm. This: 33x45mm, 8.81gm     Shown 300% $55.00
12n   COCKEREL, with two rings. This form of the cockerel, with sharp beak, upswept tail, and rings above and below seems to be the most standardized, with widths average 40mm, weights around 5-9gm. This: 47x37mm, 8.77gm     Shown 300% $85.00
12m   COCKEREL, with two rings. This form of the cockerel, with sharp beak, upswept tail, and rings above and below seems to be the most standardized, with widths average 40mm, weights around 5-9gm. This: 44x39mm, 8.51gm. One side rough.     Shown 300% $45.00
13a   COCKEREL, with two rings attached directyly to body. Fancier than the usual type. 53x42mm, 11.33gm     Shown 500% $65.00
13m   COCKEREL, with two rings attached directyly to body, though upper ring is a solid circle. Other details differing from the common tpe. Two lower rings have been broken off, reattached, then broken away again. 42x29mm, 6.72gm     Shown 300% $35.00
15b   COCKEREL, with one ring. Standard form of the cockerel, with sharp beak & upswept tai. 52x36mm, 11.02gm. Cruder style than usual with filing on bottom. Ring bottom is flat as though other rings may have been removed.     Shown 300% $40.00
14a   COCKEREL, with no rings. A highly realistic rooster, flat on one side. 57x27mm, 4.94gm     Shown 300% $75.00
20c   FISH, with elongated body, 2.00gm, 34x13mm.     Shown 500% $40.00
20e   FISH, with short, broad body, lots of detail, 4.31gm, 26x21mm.     Shown 500% $60.00
21a   FISH, Thin, Long, thin pieces usually with an enlarged mouth, 16.6mm long, 3.22gm     Shown 300% $32.50
21b   FISH, Thin, Long, thin pieces usually with an enlarged mouth, 13.0mm long, 2.26gm, crack across tail     Shown 300% $9.50
21X   FISH, FAKE?, looks like it is drinking from a bottle, but that is probably meant to be a base for standing up. There are a lot of these around, always in high grade, always identical, so I am suspicious.    
22a   FISH, Large, with design or inscription along side, both sides the same. High lead content, bendable. Definitely looks old. 109mm long, 46.47gm. Cracked across tail, so must be handled gently.     $45.00
25bX   DRAGON, Standing, on stand, 78x70mm, 108.8gm. Beautifully detailed piece with reddish soil deposits. A knowledgeable source in Palembang says this is modern, so the soil additions indicate deceptive purpose rather than an object of current use.     Shown 300% $45.00
35bX   ELEPHANT,on stand, huge piece, 121x100mm, 233.4gm. A reliable source in Palembang says this is modern, so the artificial ageing shows deceptive purpose rather than an item intended for current use as a charm.     Shown 300% $45.00
36a   ELEPHANT& RIDER,thin piecewith simple raised design both sides, 54x52nn, 6.95gm. One leg missing.     Shown 300% $45.00
45a   TURTLE, checkerboard pattern on shell 6.07gm, 31.23mm. Three of four legs missing.     Shown 300% $16.50
55a   MONKEY, with baby on back, thick, heavy piece for its size, 22.5mm, 11.42gm.     Shown 500% $45.00
75a   HEADLESS HORSEMAN, on stand. Intentionally headless,, it is a copy of a piece currently in Singapore's Asian Civilisations Museum. A trusted source in Palembang says "genuuine," but I would guess it is not very old, possibly 20th Century for use as a charm. 41.73gm, 62x47mm     Shown 500% $100.00
76a   FLORAL, on stand. Not sure what this represents. Back is plain, 61mm tall, 23.76gm     Shown 300% $65.00
80a   DOLPHIN, or maybe not? Two pieces, one 43mm long, 6.60 gm, smooth but appears intact. Another 39mm long, thin, 3.20gm with designs both sides & a hanging loop, possibly intact but the mouth looks ragged, and some cracks toward the tail end. Pair:     Shown 300% $45.00
90   COCKEREL RINGS Singles, Pair of small ringlets commonly of the same size and style of those found in a chain beneath the simplified cockerel. Singh lists as money of Kedah. 10 or more $3 each; 3 or more $4.00 each; Single:     Shown 300% $5.00
90S12   COCKEREL RINGS Set, Pair of small ringlets comonly of the same size and style of those found in a chain beneath the simplified cockerel Singh lists as money of Kedah. Group of 3 from stock, showing range of variation. SAMPLE LOT Shown 300%     Shown 300% $14.50
90S6   COCKEREL RINGS Set, Pair of small ringlets comonly of the same size and style of those found in a chain beneath the simplified cockerel Singh lists as money of Kedah. Group of 10 from stock, showing range of variation. Shown 300%     Shown 300% $45.00
90S1   COCKEREL RINGS Collection, Pair of small ringlets comonly of the same size and style of those found in a chain beneath the simplified cockerel Singh lists as money of Kedah. Group of nicest 20 from stock, showing range of variation. Includes some fancy pieces. Shown 300%     Shown 300% $85.00
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SHELL MONEYS
      Cowries and other shells, in their natural state or (usually) altered, have been used as money throughout Oceaia, south and east Asia, and Africa. The pieces offered below were sourced from Palembang, Sumatra, but look just like the ones found in China and attributed to early dynasties. Which raises the question of whether they are early trade items, or just a parallel evolution. Note also tin cast-from-nature mollusc shells offered elsewhere on this page.
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTION
PRICE
630   COWRIES, Chalky, calcified shells with filed ("broken") backs, just as found in China, fairly uniform in size, lengths ±21-24mm. Lot of 5 pieces:(multiple lots available)     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $6.00
635   SHAPED SHELL, Chalky, calcified pieces cut to diamond shape from a larger shell, and drilled laterally for stringing, ±25mm length, avg. 3.12gm. Each:     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $25.00
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NAMOS OF KALAH
     The distinctive small bean-like coins called Namo have been a long-standing numismatic mystery. Who issued them, and when? Are they precursors of the Thai pod-duang (bullet) coins? Generally attributed to the powerful maritime empire of Srivijaya, Mitchiner, The History and Coinage of South East Asia (available) places them with Kalah, a rival empire which shared control of the northern Isthmus. He dates them to early 8th C. through late 10th C. and suggests that they were derived from small gold trade ingots. Gold pieces exist, but much commoner are silver pieces. Their signal feature, set in an incuse depression, is a bold character Na which looks like a four-legged animal looking backwards. The reverse is a cleft on the smaller, usually elongated "female" pieces, or various symbols raised in a shallower depression on the larger, round "male" pieces. Mitchiner notes silver contents ranging from 11-26%, but I believe silver-washed base metal pieces are Thai forgeries of the 1960s-70s.
     Recent river finds at Palembang include an extensive series of Tin pieces in two series, one cone-like, similar to the cone bidor, with weights conforming to the Massa standard, the other similar in form to the silver/gold namos, flat obverse with rim, rounded reverse, designs both sides, known weights under 10gm. These series are completely upublished, even at Zeno, though a few lots have appeared in auctions.
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTION
PRICE
800L1X   FAKE NAMO LOT Three pieces of "female" namo, one with painted-on patina, two cleaned revealing base metal, Thailand 1960s-70s.     LOT: (300%) $15.00
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CAST FROM NATURE SHELLS
     Mollusc shells are used to cast "ingots" which visually sort, and cluster by weight, to multiples of a Massa standard of ±2.45-2.65gm, creating a denomination sequence. Weights found: 4.19-6.04gm. (2 Massa); 8.52-12.27gm. (4 Massa); 17.16-19.83gm. (8 Massa); 24.34-31.11gm. (12 Massa), 36.18-43.30gm. (16 Massa); 78.45-88.09gm. (32 Massa). Specimens seen include cooling lines as on sycee, and weight adjustments: bottoms with pits where metal was removed, dabs of metal added, and bottoms smoothed flat, removing metal. Singh and Mitchiner catalog more symmetrical "mound bidor," with weights related to a Kati system convertible to Spanish silver - possibly a later and/or local version of this early shell currency. All of my specimens come from the Musi River in Palembang, and are the usual tin/lead/copper mixture. Mitchiner, J.ONS #24 (2013), p.29 describes "pure lead" castings in mollusc shells at Palembang "range in weight from 8 to 40 g." An ebay seller refers to them as "Kulit Siput ( translating as Tin Seashell) 18th Century." A European auction is offering an almost identical item as early Roman money.
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTION (click red stock numbers for images)
PRICE
104   2 MASSA Shell money (or weight), 4.90gm. nominal weight. Scarce weight category.     SPECIMENS: (shown 500%) 104a 6.04gm, 15mm $17.50;    104b 5.36gm, 15.24mm $17.50;    104c 3.45gm, 13.8mm $17.50
106   4 MASSA Shell money (or weight), 9.8gm. nominal standard. Commonest weight category.     SPECIMENS: (shown 300%) 106a 8.52gm, 18.1mm, small dab of metal on bottom, $22.50;    106c 10.0gm, 20.5mm, $15.00;    106d 10.62gm, 18.7mm, $15.00;    106h 10.87gm, 18.7mm, flat profile $15.00
108   8 MASSA Shell money (or weight), 19.6gm nominal weight. Scarce weight category.     SPECIMENS: (shown 500%) 108a 17.16gm, 23mm, $25.00;     108b 20.24gm, 24.4mm, $25.00;     108c 19.7gm, 24.5mm, $22.50;     108d 19.8gm, 23.7mm, $22.50;     108e 21.35gm, 23.5mm, rough, $17.50 112b 39.93gm, 33.5mm, $25.00;    112c 40.67gm, 30.8mm, $25.00;    112d 37.28gm, 31.7mm, showing shell ridges $40.00
114   32 MASSA Shell money (or weight), 78.4gm nominal weight. Scarce this large.     SPECIMENS: (shown 500%) 114a 78.45gm, 28x43mm base, $50.00;    114b 76.72gm, 12x24mm base, $40.00
122   Super Shell Large mollusc shell design with brims, like ingot and hat monies. Weights seen 86.1 (Heavy for 32 Massa on 2.45gm. standard), 117.1, 122.8gms (perfect 50 Massa). Bottoms have the same rough crater seen on the regular series f shell money specimens that have not been smoothed down. Found in a Singapore antiquities shop whose owner has made many buying trips to Indonesia. Thick, so scanner does not show well; brown areas are soil.     SPECIMENS: (shown 300%) 122a 86.1gm, 49.3x 49.5mm, $125.00;    122b 117.1gm, 51.6x 48.4mm, $175.00
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SUGARLOAF INGOTS
     Singh notes (p.183) that in the 16th century ingots of no fixed weight were traded by weight. Made primarily in Perak, they were also used in Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, and the rest of Malaya and Sumatra. Later they were cast in the shape of a flat-topped four-sided pyramid of controlled weight denominated in Kati (1 Kati = 603gm) and convertable to fractions of the Spanish 8 Reales. By far the commonest large denomination was 5 Katis, about 3 kilo, valued at 4 Reales in Perak (date not given). I have seen weights ranging ±2950-3175gm, and typical dimensions are 110-125mm square by 61-74mm high. Often there are one or two lines etched around the pyramid midway up. One piece seen has hatching with a central stem on the top, likely a representation of a cowrie shell. SS#20. An Archaeological Excavation of the 10th Century Intan Shipwreck by Michael Flecker, 2002, p.81-83 found a cargo of what may have been up to 1000 pieces of ingots in this shape, mostly in two weight categories of 2.2-2.5kg, and fewer of .8kg, suggesting such ingot forms were used over a long period of time. The cargo also included eighty pieces of inscribed Song silver sycee. The pyramidal shape would have facilitated stacking on a deck in a warehouse by placing alternate layers upside down.
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTION
PRICE
205a   SUGARLOAF INGOT, Perak & region, 5 Kati, ±2950gm, 118x122x60mm. Some vague hatching on top, which likely represents a cowrie shell.     $375.00
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PAGODA INGOTS / Hat Ingots, Bidor, solid-Tampang
     According to Singh (p.183), subsequent to the development of the heavy sugarloaf ingots, smaller, more manageable units were created in the shape of a squared hat and brim and the usual rough bottom from casting in an open mould. A common device on the top is a four-leaf pattern (mangosteen rosette, calyx). He notes that the term "Bidor" once referred to a specific type of ingot, and came to be applied to all types, though he uses this term for pieces with little or no hat-brim, and calls those with a full brim solid Tampangs, after the inscribed hollow pieces which are a true coinage of Perak first issued in 1819. Mitchiner (2013) quotes Ma Huan in 1430 Malacca, As to 'flower tin' . . . cast into blocks . . weigh (1 lb, 10-15 oz = .737-.879 kilo) . . . which would seem to describe these hat ingots with flower pattern and place them earlier rather than later in the European trade period. According to Mitchiner these ingots were the form in which the mine owner (i.e. Sultan) sold tin to Chinese merchants, thus more like a $100 bill than widely circulating currency. They are found here in zeno.
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTION
PRICE
220a   PAGODA INGOT, Variety: Flower top, No Brim, 500-600gm weight class. Palembang? Sultan's mine ingot for the Chinese trade, but circulated throughout region. Ingots found at Palembang run ±500-600gm, or ±700-780gm. Specimen: 60x60x40mm, 590gm. Flower pattern incuse. Rough surfaces & base. No indication of a brim having been present, but hard to say with water-worn surfaces. Found in Musi River. As SS#31, etc.     Shown 300% $75.00
227a   PAGODA INGOT, Variety: Flower top, No Brim, 700-780gm weight class. Palembang? Sultan's mine ingot for the Chinese trade, but circulated throughout region. Ingots found at Palembang run ±500-600gm, or ±700-780gm. Specimen: 82x80x35mm, 776gm. Flower pattern raised. Unusually low and wide for type. There is a rim remnant or flashing at one corner; if there was ever a brim present it was removed before the piece was lost in the river. Found in Musi River. As SS#31, etc.     Shown 300% $110.00
231a   PAGODA INGOT, Variety: Flower top, Brim, 500-600gm weight class. Sultan's mine ingot for the Chinese trade, but circulated throughout region. Ingots found at Palembang run ±500-600gm, or ±700-780gm. Specimen: 81x80x42mm, 570.2gm. Flower pattern incuse. Ragged brim, partly loose. Rough, whitish surface suggesting sea rather than river find. From a collector in Malaysia. As SS#31, etc.     Shown 300% $135.00
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TAMPANG: TIN HAT MONEY / Hat Ingots, Bidor, solid-Tampang
      In 1819 the Sultan of Pahang issued ingots similar to the earlier mine ingots circulating in the region, but smaller and hollow, thus better designed for common transactions, and valued at 1/16 of a Dollar. They were inscribed Malik al-Adil, as was a widely circulating generic coin type, plus the date AH1235. Later Sultans added more complex legends and dcorations on both sides, with denominations bearing little relationship to weights. The Sultans also authorized gambling houses to issue large tin "Jokoh" in the Chinese style of coinage, which circulated alongside the tampangs.
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTION
PRICE
250X   FAKE TAMPANG #1, Variety: Large, hollow, Uninscribed, 76x80x32mm, about 400gm. Sold at a Singapore coins & antiquities shop, I got excited by a bad photo showing a new type, and a cheap price. Below cost, for your Black Museum:     Shown 200% $25.00
251X   FAKE TAMPANG #2, Variety: Small, hollow, Inscribed, 24x29x12mm, 134gm. This is meant to be the 1/25th Dollar of 1281AH (P.58, SS17). Sold at a Singapore coins & antiquities shop, I got excited by a bad photo showing a new type, and a cheap price. Below cost, for your Black Museum:     Shown 200% $30.00
292   TAMPANG, AH1281 (AD1864), $1/100 = Cent = 1/4 TAMPANG, Uninscribed top (unusual for late TAMPANGs), Bottom: Pada awal bulan Rabi'al Thani ini belanja Phang dari tarikh sanat 1281, 40x40mm, 17.76gm. Date sharp, most of inscription clear.     Prid. 60, SS19 $200.00
294   TAMPANG, AH1295 (AD1878), $1/100 = Cent = 1/4 TAMPANG, Top: Flowers & vines), Bottom: Malik Al Adil tarikh kepada bulan Rejab sanat 1295, 28x28mm, 8.73gm. Very sharp decorations and clear legends, largish casting hole     Prid. 61, SS20 $95.00
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OTHER INGOT FORMS
     Singh says that the earliest form of lump tin money, reported by 15th C. Europeans, was cast in open sand moulds producing a rounded top and flat bottom. His Perak #1-6 range 201-2496 gm. They were produced and used outside Perak as well. Mitchiner (J.ONS, 2013, p.27 #1-2) catalogs two smooth, circular pieces of 48.0 & 48.2gm testing 100% for lead, and speculates that rulers produced them for commerce. Specimens in the 39-41gm. range shown as Zeno #142787 and #98487 are similar to ones I have sourced from the Musi River in Palembang. Singh’s next category is “Conical or Cylindrical” which closely match one of the “stepped” conical bidor forms, though again at much higher weights; Zeno #12619 is rounded rather than conical. A final category prior to the familiar pyramidal forms is the long, narrow mountain-shaped, which resemble stage backgrounds for a distant mountain range. Click the thumbnail above to see pieces sourced from Palembang. The two rounded in left background are almost certainly weights; possibly the right foreground as well. The left foreground rounded pyramid has images stamped at top and bottom and is related to a series of much smaller pieces.
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTION
PRICE
130a   EGG SHAPED, 299.0 gm, 51.5x40.5mm. Very rough at one end suggesting metal adjustment to a target weight. Another piece seen is 370.4gm.     $65.00
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CONICAL BIDOR INGOTS
     Singh says that the second type of ingot produced, after mounds, were conical/cylindrical ( tapered side with flat top and bottom), perak #7-10, (169-1111.9gm). The conical ingots coming today from Palembang, locally called bidor, are lighter and more varied in form. TYPOLOGY: The basic shape is a pyramidal cone with flat base, ranging from tall with pointed top, to squat and bulbous with flat top. They are holed from base to top, though the narrow hole in the tall ones is often closed from the casting process or soil accretions. Most have concentric lines, the squat ones less finely. A few are found with a larger base cast over a smaller piece, creating a stepped shape. There are also plain (unlined) pieces which are hard to distinguish from specimens that have been worn or scraped. There does not appear to be any regularity to the weights or visual sizes. Zeno #12882 and #12883 show a less tapered variant, and a similar object that could be a weight or sinker.
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTION
PRICE
151   CONICAL INGOT, Short, Pyramidal cone with flat base, short with large center hole; concentric lines. ±11-17gm, ±12-20mm width at base; some larger. Typical piece.     SAMPLES shown $10.00
153   CONICAL INGOT, Short, Plain, Pyramidal cone with flat base, short with large center hole; few or no concentric lines. ±11-17gm, ±12-20mm width at base; some larger. Typical piece.     SAMPLES shown $11.00
157   CONICAL INGOT, Tall, Pyramidal cone with flat base, tall with small center hole; bold concentric lines. ±13-35gm, ±12-20mm width at base; some larger. Typical piece.     SAMPLES shown $10.00
160   CONICAL INGOT, Tall, Stepped, Pyramidal cone with flat base, tall with small center hole; bold concentric lines. Wider base has been cast around a smaller piece, creating a stepped effect. ±13-35gm, ±12-20mm width at base; some larger. Typical piece.     SAMPLES shown $10.00
150L2   CONICAL INGOT LOT Set of four basic varieties, plus unusual piece with etched lateral lines. Select, larger pieces. (5)     Shown 300% $47.50
150L10   CONICAL INGOT LOT Set of eight different covering all four basic variants Select, larger pieces. (8)     Shown 300% $75.00
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"HAIRPIN" BIDOR
     Rods with a thick middle and tapered ends twisted into short coils. Clearly cast, then hammered, leaving tool marks on a squarish or faceted body. 35 pieces from the lower end of their weight range (2-8gm) showed no clustering, though there is a length gap in the longer pieces (7-31gm) between 22 pieces 60-80mm, and 8 pieces 102-130mm. They look to me like fish-net weights, though the end curls on most are too tight to have held line of any thickness. A variant form is round-bodied with much less taper and a notch around each end, suitable for winding rather than clamping a line. Of course, utility would not have precluded use as money in a culture where fishing was the mainstay of life. See Zeno#158606
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTION (click red stock numbers for images)
PRICE
352   "HAIRPIN" BIDOR, Long specimens, but highly variable weights.     SPECIMENS: (shown 300%) 352a 25.38gm, 133mm, $22.50;    352b 25.08gm, 105mm, $22.50;    352c 23.07gm, 105mm, $20.00;    352d21.20gm, 118mm, $22.50;    352e18.49gm, 102mm, 20.00 $15-25
356   "HAIRPIN" BIDOR, Medium-length specimens (40-80mm), highly variable weights (±3-15gm).     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $9.50
356S1   "HAIRPIN" BIDOR: SET, Medium-length specimens (40-80mm), highly variable weights (±3-15gm). Set of 3 selected pieces from longest & shortest in group, and one round-bodied.     Shown 300% $29.50
356S4   "HAIRPIN" BIDOR: SET, Medium-length specimens (40-80mm), highly variable weights (±3-15gm). Set of 3 selected pieces from longest & shortest in group, and one round-bodied.     Shown 300% $29.50
356S10   "HAIRPIN" BIDOR: SET, Medium-length specimens (40-80mm), corroded and one cut? piece, 3 pcs. Lot     Shown 300% $12.00
364   "HAIRPIN" BIDOR, Knob-end variety, Medium, ±14-19gm, 60-70mm. See Zeno#12883 for similar item with one knob-end.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $17.50
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"DUMBELL" RINGS / Keloh
     Mitchiner's The History and Coinage of South East Asia (1998, p.28-32) presents examples of ring monies from South India through Japan, including several in "lead" from S. Thailand and S. Vietnam; he dates them to c. 200-600 AD but from the appearance of the metal I would say considerably later. In his 1979 Non-Islaic & Colonial #2609-15 he attributes them to te Thai kingdom of Lavapura, c. 1050-1350. In Java, core of the old Majapahit Empire, they are called kelokMoney, Markets & Trade In Early Southeast Asia (1992, p.167) quotes O. W. Wolters (J. Siam Society, 1960), re. Zhenlifu, a kingdom on the Gulf of Thailand c. 1200 AD known only for sending tribute to China: "For trade dealings in clothing and food they use pieces of lead;" Wicks speculates that "non-functional loop earrings recovered archaeologically from many Dvaravati-period sites in Thailand" may relate to the rings published by Mitchiner. My Indonesian supplier (1999) of the #5 rings, who is unlikely to know of Wicks or Wolters, attributed them to Zhenlifu.
     TYPOLOGY: 1) Broken rings with thin top and bulbous ends; less worn specimens show a lateral casting seam, 2) Conventional rings with break; See: Zeno#51575. and 2b) overlapping coils and multi-coils of round to ovoid stock apparently cut from thick wire stock, not cast. Both ring forms exist in tin/lead/copper alloy (ganza?), and bronze. Weights of these core types range from under 2gm to 50+gm with no clear pattern. Rarer variants: 3) With designs and/or crenelated (dragon back) & other shapes, usually large, 4) Elongated shape allowing a 360° rotation so bulbous ends point outward, 5) As #4 but the degree of bend variable, and the ends range from cone-like with flat ends to mushroom shape, 6) "Tadpole" shape with one bulbous end, flattened, curled, 7) As #1 but gap at thin end. See Zeno#210217.
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTION (click red stock numbers for images)
PRICE
406   1) BULBOUS END RINGS, cast. Large, about 32-35mm wide.     SPECIMENS: (300%) 406a 49.57gm, rough area $40;    406b 46.02gm, crack at top (fragile) $12.00; $15-40
410   1) BULBOUS END RINGS, cast. Medium, about 30-32mm wide.     SPECIMENS: (300%) 410a 27.02gm, rough area $27.50;    410b 25.94gm, corroded $15.00;    410c 24.76gm, $25;    410f 23.21gm, patchy soil, $25;    410g 22.75gm, $25 $12-30
412   1) BULBOUS END RINGS, cast. Small., about 23-27mm wide.     SPECIMENS: (300%) ;    412b 15.42gm, $20;    412c 15.56gm, $20 $20.00
417b   3) FANCY BULBOUS RINGS RINGS, cast. Bulbous ring, often asymmetrical, with designs and/or crenelated shapes, usually large. The crenelations could represent dragon scales? 121gm, 55mm across     Shown 300% 417a 73.95gm, 50mm across, $50;    417b 121gm, 55mm across, $50;    417c 73.42gm, 44mm across, exceptionally sharp, $60 $50.00
417c   3) FANCY BULBOUS RINGS RINGS, cast. Bulbous ring, often asymmetrical, with designs and/or crenelated shapes, usually large. The crenelations could represent dragon scales? 73.42gm, 44mm across, exceptionally sharp     Shown 300% 417a 73.95gm, 50mm across, $50;    417b 121gm, 55mm across, $50;    417c 73.42gm, 44mm across, exceptionally sharp, $60 $60.00
417d   3) FANCY BULBOUS RINGS RINGS, cast. Bulbous ring, often asymmetrical, with designs and/or crenelated shapes, usually large. The crenelations could represent dragon scales? 77.4gm, 47mm across, rough & incomplete     Shown 300% 417a 73.95gm, 50mm across, $50;    417b 121gm, 55mm across, $50;    417c 73.42gm, 44mm across, exceptionally sharp, $60 $13.50
424   2) CONVENTIONAL RINGS, cut from thick wire stock. Widths about 24-30mm     SPECIMENS: (300%) 424a 35.09gm, $25;    424b 26.07gm, $23.50;    424c 25.35gm, $23.50;    424d 22.01gm, squared body, $23.50;    424e 21.26gm, $22.50 $20-25
430   2) BRONZE RINGS, More varied in size and form than the ganza rings, many have either bulbous or flattened ends. Most are too small or large to be worn.     SPECIMENS: (300%) 430a 17.24gm, 23mm, just as ganza rings $18.50;    430b 13.14gm, 34mm, $14.50;    430c 3.91gm, 28mm, $12.50;    :430e 14.21gm, 36mm, $16.50 $20-25
442   2b) COILS, Broken rings with overlap or multiple coils of variable gauge THICK wire stock. Wire gauge 7-11mm. Largest I've seen has 6 coils, 215gm.     442b 55.77gm, 37mm, $25;    444a 41.90gm, 24x18mm, $18.50;     $18.50+
446   2b) COILS, Broken rings with overlap or multiple coils of variable gauge THINNER wire stock. Wire gauge under 5mm. Mostly 2+ full coils.     SPECIMENS: (300%) 446a 15.53gm, 20x14mm, $15;    446b 12.93gm, 24mm, $15;    446c 9.45gm, 15x13mm, $15;    446d 8.31gm, 17x17mm, $15 $15-25
458a   7) THICK BODY, As classical form but the break is aat thin end leaving a bulbous body. Two pieces seen weigh 97.32 & 96.61gm.     SPECIMENS: (300%) 458a 96.6gm, 48mm WIDE, $40 $40.00
460   5) "ZHENLIFU" RINGS, Mushroom-like heads joined by a rounded stem, often twisted. Group purchased in 1999 from a dealer in central Java who attributed them to Zhenlifu (Gulf of Thailand). Very Large with flat heads and cone-like necks, 14-25gm.     SPECIMENS: (Photos 300%) 460a 98gm, about 50mm across, $50.00 $50.00
463   5) "ZHENLIFU" RINGS, Mushroom-like heads joined by a rounded stem, often twisted. Group purchased in 1999 from a dealer in central Java who attributed them to Zhenlifu (Gulf of Thailand). Large with flat heads and cone-like necks, 14-25gm.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $17.50
465   5) "ZHENLIFU" RINGS, Mushroom-like heads joined by a rounded stem, often twisted. Group purchased in 1999 from a dealer in central Java who attributed them to Zhenlifu (Gulf of Thailand). Large with rounded heads and thin necks, range 14-25gm.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $16.50
467   5) "ZHENLIFU" RINGS, Mushroom-like heads joined by a rounded stem, often twisted. Group purchased in 1999 from a dealer in central Java who attributed them to Zhenlifu (Gulf of Thailand). Small with rounded heads and thin necks, range 4-9gm.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $12.50
460S1   5) "ZHENLIFU" RINGS: Set, Mushroom-like heads joined by a rounded stem, often twisted. Group purchased in 1999 from a dealer in central Java who attributed them to Zhenlifu (Gulf of Thailand). Set of 3 visually different sizes including the largest & smallest ones in the lot.     $45.00
471   5b) "ZHENLIFU" RINGS, Elongated, flat heads joined by a rounded stem, often twisted. Group purchased in 1999 from a dealer in central Java who attributed them to Zhenlifu (Gulf of Thailand). Large 18.91gm, 29mm     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $22.50
473   5b) "ZHENLIFU" RINGS, Elongated, flat heads joined by a rounded stem, often twisted. Group purchased in 1999 from a dealer in central Java who attributed them to Zhenlifu (Gulf of Thailand). Small with unusually elongated flat head, Small: 18.91gm, 29mm     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $16.50
475   5b) "ZHENLIFU" RINGS, Elongated, flat heads joined by a rounded stem, often twisted. Group purchased in 1999 from a dealer in central Java who attributed them to Zhenlifu (Gulf of Thailand). Bronze 12.27gm, 32mm across. Scarce.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $27.50
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CLASP MONEY (Canoe)
     Rectangular lengths of tin which are either bent over or pronged to attach to string. Mitchiner The Circulation of Tin in Palembang (Sumatra): Its Monetary and Non-Monetary Functions (ONS, 2013), calls them boat-shaped ingots, notes a lack of pattern in their weights, and speculates that they traded by weight. What I call the Classic, (#3, 4) are a simple high-lead matte-gray sheet rolled in tubular form with pinched ends. Michael Flecker, in An Archaeological Excavation of the 10th Century Intan Shipwreck (2002, p.64-65) found both the the "classic" type and a pronged type, suggesting that the prongs or lugs were bent over string, as Mitchiner's pieces were found bent halfwise over string, for carrying. They were found distributed over the wreck, thus individually carried and not cargo, and he gave them the name of Clasp Money. From the high lead content he suggests the metal, if not the pieces themselves, originated on the Malay peninsula as gambar. Similar pieces have been found on other wrecks together, as though strung.while the more. The more complex and variable, but clearly related (#8-10), cast shapes in harder, shiny-black tin come from the Musi River in Palembang, Sumatra and their state of preservation suggests a later date than the 10th Century classic pieces. Examples pf tje Classic type are posted at Zeno as #17821, #17822, and #17823.
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTION (click red stock numbers for images)
PRICE
537a   1) CLASSIC #1, ±87mm, ±16-19gm, high-lead tin sheet rolled to tubular shape with crimped ends for stringing. Similar to the Mitchiner examples.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $15.00
537b   1) CLASSIC #2, ±74-87mm, ±13-26gm, tin sheet rolled to tubular shape with crimped ends for stringing. Some with small stones lodged inside.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $12.00
537d   1) CLASSIC #4, ±38x11 - 56x14mm, ±11-25gm, tin sheet folded into rectangualr shape, ends usually more pinched. Some with small stones lodged inside.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $15.00
540   2) FLAT, ±40-70mm, ±12-30gm, thick rectangle with three tabs at top, crimped over to allow stringing.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $12.50
540S1   2) FLAT LOT, ±40-70mm, ±12-30gm, thick rectangle with three tabs at top, crimped over to allow stringing; Lot of 2 pieces, unusually long or short (38, 70mm)     $27.50
541   2) FLAT, Patterned, 58x22mm, 19.8gm, rectangle with three tabs at top, crimped over to allow stringing; pattern of dotted crosses one side.     $17.50
541   2) FLAT, Patterned, 58x22mm, 19.8gm, rectangle with three tabs at top, crimped over to allow stringing; pattern of dotted crosses one side.     $17.50
575   3) LARGE FLAT, Rectangle with three tabs at top, crimped over to allow stringing. A bulk purchase contains four consistent sizes: 575a ±115x20mm, ±42gm., shiny black $14.50;   575b) ±98x32mm, ±49gm., shiny black $9.50;   575c)±92x30mm, ±36gm., matte gray metal $12.50;   575d)±98x37mm, ±53gm., matte gray metal $12.50     SAMPLES SHOWN 200% $9.50-$14.50
576   3) LARGE FLAT, Patterned, Rectangle with three tabs at top, crimped over to allow stringing. One side with raised outer rims and vertical center rim one side. ±90x40mm, ±45gm., shiny blacky metal.     SAMPLES SHOWN 200%) $12.50
576L1   3) LARGE FLAT Patterned, Variety Set, Rectangle with three tabs at top, crimped over to allow stringing. In a lot of 50 patterned pieces, 42 were the usual with outer and a central vertical rim, but 8 [oeces had different dimensions and patterns. Set of the usual type, and two others, as shown. Note cracks.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $37.50
545   4) SOLID, SQUARED, ±45-55mm, ±22-34gm, squared bar with three tabs at top, crimped over to allow stringing.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $16.50
550   5) SOLID, SQUARED, DRILLED, ±45-65mm, ±20-25gm, squared bar, solid or hollowed, with three loops at top, drilled through to allow stringing.     550a) 68mm long, 25.0gm $22.50
550   5) SOLID, SQUARED, DRILLED, ±45-65mm, ±20-25gm, squared bar, solid or hollowed, with three loops at top, drilled through to allow stringing.     550a) 45mm long, 19.7gm $15.00
555   6) HOLLOW, SQUARED, ±40-70mm, ±15-30gm, like some of the canoe shapes, cast as two hollow shells then bent together so that the join spots form loops for stringing.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $17.50
560   7) OPEN-SEAM, ROUNDED, range 44-67mm, 12-26gm, cast flat then bent together to form rounded body, tabs gaping to allow stringing.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $16.50
565   8) CLOSED-SEAM, ROUNDED, range 33-73mm, 8.5-31gm, cast round, but with prominent seams, then tabs bent down to allow stringing.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $14.50
565S1   8) CLOSED-SEAM, ROUNDED: LOT, range 33-73mm, 8.5-31gm, cast round, but with prominent seams, then tabs bent down to allow stringing; Lot of 2 pieces, long & short.     $28.50
565S3   8) CLOSED-SEAM, ROUNDED: LOT, range 33-73mm, 8.5-31gm, cast round, but with prominent seams, then tabs bent down to allow stringing; Lot of 2 pieces, long & short.     $28.50
569   8) CLOSED-SEAM, ROUNDED, DOUBLE LENGTH,132mm, 45.2gm, cast round, but with prominent seams, then tabs bent down to allow stringing. Double-length piece with four loops. Crude     SPECIMENS: (Photos 300%) 565a clear design $22.50;    565b vague design $15.00 $29.00
535S1   CLASP MONEY TYPE SET    
535S2   CLASP MONEY TYPE SET    
535S2   CLASP MONEY - DAMAGE LOT    
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BOAT Money / Charm
     Crescent with flattened bottom and a central pillar, resembling a high-prowed canoe with a "rower." There are three basic types: 1) Large (±90-100mm), solidly cast, with in-line holes through the prows and rower, usually with design on sides but often blurred. Clearly designed to be strung, likely worn. 2) Small (±45-50mm), solidly cast with flat backs; apparently to be affixed to a flat object, though some have had high points crimped to allow stringing; usually without design. 3) Hollow, (±35-75mm), cast as two shells joined at the prows and rower, then bent together; the gaps at the bends allow stringing; usually without design, sometimes filled with soil. The "boat" shape, with its raised prows and a central projection, is clearly related to the Clasp Money forms, especially the later, more elaborate, decorated versions with three prongs. As with square-hole cash, both forms are stringable. From their state of preservation, and ornamentation, I would guess that boats as a class are later than Clasp Monies, and may have been strung as wearable charms.
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTION (click red stock numbers for images)
PRICE
501   1) LARGE / SOLID, ±100mm, 40gm, bold designs     SPECIMENS: (Photos 300%) 501a $22.50;    501b $22.50;    501c 98mm $22.50;    501d 101mm $22.50;    501e 103mm $22.50;    501f 98mm $22.50; $22.50
501X   1) LARGE / SOLID MODERN, ±100mm, 40gm, bold designs. Several "uncirculated" pieces with identical designs and flashing suggest that this form is still being made, whether for deceptive sale or use as charms, I don't know. From an ebay seller who also carries modern versions of animal "money" and other suspicious items.     $10.00
504   1) LARGE / SOLID, ±100mm, 40gm, weakish "double cartouche" design on sides. Analogous to the continued use of worn-out moulds for both the Chinese-style and Sultanate coinage which makes sharp examples relatively hard to find.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $9.50
505   1) LARGE / SOLID, ±100mm, 40gm, traces of "double cartouche" design on sides. Analogous to the continued use of worn-out moulds for both the Chinese-style and Sultanate coinage which makes sharp examples relatively hard to find.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $7.50
500S5   COLLECTION of the large, solid-cast Boat, (±100mm, 40gm), selected from purchases over several years, specimens with bold designs, all different, 5 pieces. Designs are the same on both sides of the piece.     $100.00
510   2) SMALL / SOLID, ±45-50mm, ±7-12gm, one side flat, though ends are often crimped for stringing; no design.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $8.50
510S1   2) SMALL / SOLID: LOT, ±45-50mm, ±7-12gm, one side flat, though ends are often crimped for stringing; Lot of 4 pieces - the one with design has two pieces broken away.     $35.00
520   3) HOLLOW, ±35-65mm, ±12-20gm, can be strung through gaps in high points.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $9.50
520S1   3) HOLLOW LOT, ±35-65mm, ±12-20gm, can be strung through gaps in high points; selected Lot of 3 different sizes.     $29.50
523a   3) HOLLOW, Patterned, bold cartouche at center, other side same, 53x20mm, 24.1gm. Very sharp.     $25.00
523e   3) HOLLOW, Patterned, Three angled lines at center, other side same, 53x18mm, 23.3gm.     $21.00
523f   3) HOLLOW, Patterned, Three parallel lines at center, other side same, 58x18mm, 17.6gm. Hard to see in photo.     $18.50
525a   3) HOLLOW, LARGE, Unusual piece more than twice the usual size, 90x31mm, 94gm. Design of 3 lines, sasme on other side     $26.50
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RING MONEY
     In 1992 I bought from a traveller a group of 65 "Bali bracelet money", 5 Loloe Amas, or Loda (meaning chain-money), 51 "Korintj" rings, 10 betel-nut holders, and 91 Duits and 2 Duits (latest 1839, mostly EF-UC), which I suspect are the burial monies from a village graveyard, minus Chinese cash which were sold elsewhere.
The Korintji rings are described in Millies Recherches... (1871), sourced by Quiggin A Survey of Primitive Money (1949), p.266: "(the Korintji) in the interior of Palembang who formerly made use of yellow copper rings . . . . Many have very small buttons or bosses on the outer surface. Their local value was very low, 15,360 to the gold tahil." The hoard had five pieces exactly as Millies' illustrations (#210-211). Of course there is always skepticism about wearable objects being money (see Zeno#12746 and Der Primitivgeld-Sammler, 1995/1, p.15-25) but the other objects in the group are supportive.
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTION (click red stock numbers for images)
PRICE
304   KORINTJI RING MONEY: PATTERNED I had 11 pieces patterned just like the drawing in Millies and of course they sold right away, but the ones offered here were in the same hoard and match Millies' description, just different faceting or design elements. All are yellow brass but darkly toned. 17.0-25.7mm, .92-6.29gm with no clustering of weights.     SPECIMENS: (shown 500%) 304b 3.31gm, 21.1mm, $35.00;    304c 4.45gm, 25.7mm, $27.50;        304e6.29gm, 26.9mm, 27.50;    304h 2.22gm, 23.5mm, $22.50;    304n 2.46gm, 25.1mm, $15;    304q 1.43gm, 18.2mm, $15.00;    304r .94gm, 23.6mm, $12.50;    304s 1.73gm, 23.0mm, $15.00;    304t 1.74gm, 21.3mm, $17.50 $12.50-35.00
308   KORINTJI RING MONEY: PLAIN Thin, unpatterned rings which appear to match one of the photos in the Der Primitivgeld-Sammler article, 1995/1, p.15-25. All are yellow brass but darkly toned.
308 Small: 18-23.0mm, 1.02-2.18gm with no clustering of weights. $17.50 each
310 Medium 23.65mm, 3.79, 3.85gm $22.50 each
312 Large 27.5-24.8mm, 8.12-10.16gm $30.00 each     SAMPLES SHOWN (500%)
$17.50-30.00
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ARM RING MONEY
     Citing a 1935 publication by A. Loehr, Quiggin notes, "Brass arm-rings used as currency on the island of Bali may be seen in the Vienna Currency Collection . . ." The 1995 lot I bought had 65 rings, 37 of which were 60-65mm and partly decorated with raised designs of linked spirals or dots-and-bars patterns, the rest plain. This is a wearable size, whether as bracelet or arm ring, and my only clue that they might be a money item is their presence in the lot with other money items.
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTION (click red stock numbers for images)
PRICE
322   ARM RING, Large / Heavy: Unbroken rings in whitish brass, though heavily toned or crusted, outer widths 66-80mm, ±40-75gm, usually with decorative patterns.     SPECIMENS: (shown 200%) 322a 65.21gm, 76mm, lovely design, top only, $75.00;    322b 69.75gm, 81mm, design mostly worn off, $35.00;    322d 38.85gm, 70mm, simple but bold design $50.00 $35.00-75.00
324   ARM RING, Medium: Unbroken rings in whitish brass, though heavily toned or crusted, outer widths 54-66mm, weights ±33-43gm, usually with decorative patterns.     SPECIMENS: (shown 200%) 324a 39.55gm, 66mm, spiral design all around, $45.00;    324b 40.15gm, 67mm, clear design at top, $30.00;    324c 43.33gm, 70mm, spiral design mostly around, some wear & roughness, $25.00;    324d 32.96gm, 64mm, design at top, some wear, $30.00;    324e 33.03gm, 64mm, simple design at top, some wear, $25.00 $25.00-45.00
326   ARM RING, Small / Light: Unbroken rings in whitish brass, though heavily toned or crusted, outer widths 55-61mm, weights ±11-30gm, usuallyplain.     SPECIMENS: (shown 200%) 326a 29.25gm, 60mm, sharp design at top, $40.00;    326b 30.19gm, 60mm, plain, $22.50;    326c 23.70gm, 61mm, plain, $22.50;    326e 13.81gm, 60mm, simple design at top, some wear, $25.00    326g 13.16gm, 59mm, incised spiral all around & small tab at top (unusual), $25;    3266 22.58gm, 60mm, bold design both ends but section missing, $15 $17.50-40.00
329   FANCY BRACELET, The lot included a few fancy interrupted-ring pieces, presumably burial goods rather than money items. Metal appears to be mostly copper rather than the white brass of the regular pieces.     SPECIMENS: (shown 200%) 329a 31.66gm, 55mm, Flat-band with lovely design, $60;    329b 53.40gm, 79mm, same design as on many solid-ring pieces; very green$35.00;    329c 66.17gm, 66-57mm, bold design with spirals but much verdigris; I have left uncleaned to show bits of cloth adhering, $45.00 $17.50-40.00
332   THAI COPPER BRACELET, A group from a Thai supplier in the 1980s, nothing but their plainness to suggest they are money.     SPECIMENS: (shown 200%) 329a 74.23gm, 94mm, nice condition, $35.00;     332b 39.15gm, 66mm, corroded $15.00;    3332c 27.18gm, 68mm, corroded $15.00;     $15.00-35.00
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MASSA WEIGHTS
      A lot of 112 uninscribed Indonesian river salvage pieces contains 60 of standard form and intact enough to weigh with confidence; there is a clear clustering around 2.5, 5, and 10 grams. Two huge pieces, very much in the form of the smaller ones but apparently of later origin, weigh 790.4 and 791.6. These would be 320 Massa on a standard of 2.46 grams. The usual shape is thicker than the breadth would be for a coin flan (like an Indian "dump"), widths ±8-20mm. Surfaces are sometimes flat, but often concave or with broad outer rims, providing a center to add or remove metal as adjustment. Edges may be flat, bevelled, hammered, or too worn to say. Some of the outlier weight values could be shaved, but there are a few that are clearly intact. A second form (14 pcs.) is flat with a rounded top; these also appear to follow the Massa standard, but with more variation. An Archaeological Excavation of the 10th Century Intan Shipwreck by Michael Flecker, 2002, p.67-70 finds similar outlier weights among this type, and speculates that an Indian or Chinese standard was coincident in the region, so merchants may have carried two sets of weights.
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTION
PRICE
600S1   MASSA WEIGHT SET, Three pieces approximately 1, 2, 4 Massa on a 2.47 gram standard     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $19.50
600S2   MASSA WEIGHT SET, Three pieces approximately 1, 2, 4 Massa on a 2.47 gram standard     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $19.50
600S4   MASSA WEIGHT SET, Four pieces approximately 1/2, 1, 2, 4 Massa on a 2.47 gram standard, all high for the standard.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $25.00
600S6   MASSA WEIGHT SET, Five pieces approximately 1/4, 1/2, 1, 2, 4 Massa on a 2.47 gram standard, all somewhat high for the standard. There were 4 of these unusual 1/4 Massa pieces in the lot which appear larger than the 1 Massa - hollow?     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $35.00
600S12   MASSA WEIGHT SET, Eight mostly larger pieces of varying weight, all different shapes, thickness or surface types, including one cut piece.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $49.50
600S20   MASSA WEIGHT SET, Seven pieces of varying weight, mostly outliers from the 2.47 gram standard.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $35.00
600S22   MASSA WEIGHT SET, Two of the largest, best-grade pieces in the lot, showing scooped & convex obverses (metal removed, metal added?): 18.66gm, 23.9mm; 23.02gm, 22.0mm.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $40.00
600S31   MASSA WEIGHT SET, Ten pieces of varying weight, rough, corroded.     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% $17.50
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IRON CHARMS
     Formerly misidentified as money items ("Borneo Bullet Money"), these are individually hand-made, acid-etched iron amulets, ca. 1950-1980s, from Surabaya, East Java. Magic Coins of Java, Bali and the Malay Peninsula by Joseph Cribb ($95), pp.68-69, tells how an enterprising Surabaya (Java) man created the hybrid Hindu/Islamic designs, successfully promoted them as powerful amulets, and built a family business around their manufacture. Most are roughly rounded with crude pseudo-Arabic script, thumbprint designs, and (on larger sizes) dragons. The designs are often difficiult to see. Round, coinlike versions also exist, as well as flat-sided bronze pieces with more detailed designs.
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTIONs)
PRICE
704   IRON BALLS, Small, Smooth, 5-11gm rounded or triangular with a finished look (3 different $20)     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% Each: $7.50
705   IRON BALLS, Small, Rough, 5-11gm, chips & irregular shapes, (3 different $20)     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% Each: $7.50
706   IRON BALLS, Small plus, about 15gm     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% Each: $12.00
708   IRON BALLS, Medium-Small, about 35-45gm     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% Each: $14.50
710   IRON BALLS, Medium-Large, about 55-65gm     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% Each: $19.50
  IRON BALLS, Large, 712) about 80-85gm, $27.50 each;    714) about 90-115gm, $36.50 each;    716) about 130-150gm, $45.00 each     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% Each: $27.50-45.00
700S   IRON BALLS SET, 700S1) 5-piece with #704, 705, 706, 708 & 710, weights from ±5-65gm, $49.50;    700S2) as above but including #712 weights from ±5-85gm, $69.50     SAMPLE SETS SHOWN 300% Per Set: $50, $70
740a   IRON FLAT AMULET From the same workshop, coinlike piece with Arabic verses (probably readable), 46mm, 12.97gm. See Cribb #250a-257a for mostsly pictoral types. Light rust.     $25.00
722-26   BRASS AMULETS, bearing Koranic verses, various sizes & shapes, from the same workshop as above: 722) Oval cabochon shape, 12m, O: "Allah" & design, R: "Hafiz es Salaam Md." $7.50;    724) Oval cabochon shape, 18m, O: "Allah" & design, R: (illiterate engraving), $10.00;    728) Six-faceted cylinder, 25-28m, "Bismillah arahmon al-arahim" (We have brought you a clear victory) &16.50     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% Per Set: $7.50-16.50
735-36   KRIS AMULETS, with illegible Arabic inscription, in the shape of the famous Kris, monetary and status weapon. Most 50-70m long. 735) Brass, $4.00;    736) Copper, scarcer $4.50     SAMPLES SHOWN 300% Per Set: $50, $70
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SCROLL CHARMS
     Elongated tin sheets inscribed with Buddhist prayers or "magic spells" in Thai(?) script. On ebay I found this offering where modern versions in copper are referred to as takrut or takrud, though the term is used for other forms of Thai Buddhist charms. The ones offered beow are in tin, suggesting a Malay / Indonesian origin, and I have also been offered gold. Some were offered with photos showing them unrolled, then were rolled up for mailing, so you can unroll them, though I would not suggest doing it too often. Due to the ripples and irregular toning on dark tin, the inscriptions do not show up well in the scans, and are best viewed with a magnifying glass.
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTION
PRICE
760a   SCROLL CHARM, fully unrolled, 145x42mm, script both sides     $50.00
760d   SCROLL CHARM, About half unrolled, ?x23mm, script both sides.     $45.00
760f   SCROLL CHARM, pair: One fairly short scroll, partly unrolled (20+x24mm) with script hard to see, and a likely fragment (55x29mm) with fairly clear script both sides.     $60.00
760h   SCROLL CHARM Almost fully unrolled, small 60+x16mm, designs of cartoonish human faces instead of inscription.     $45.00
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OTHER ITEMS
     This category is for other objects associated with Malaysia / Indonesia, including recovered tin objects whose function is unclear, and non-numismatic artefacts.
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STOCK#
DESCRIPTION
PRICE
905   PLUMB-BOBS, my name for roundish tin pieces with holed hanging stems, similar to a plumb-bob weight used to tension a string in construction. My guess is they are charms strung around the neck. Weights 5-34gm. Typical piece in 13-16gm range     SAMPLES shown $10.00
905L1   PLUMB-BOBS, my name for roundish tin pieces with holed hanging stems, similar to a plumb-bob weight used to tension a string in construction. My guess is they are charms strung around the neck. Weights 5-34gm. Set of two different sizes, 9.54, 28.42 gm. & 20.51gm worn piece     $25.00
925L1   DECORATIVES, Four decorative tin items found in Musi River. Largest is 56mm shell with floral design; Rampant Lion shell, small rattle with flower-petal design both sides, fancy "nail." Lot:     $27.50
930L1   BELLS, Three pieces dredged from Musi River, look like high-tin bronze. All with clappers, no serious damage, largest 32mm tall.     $20.00
1100L1   DAMAGED ITEMS LOT, Two headless cockerels, 3 large cone bidors with casting imperfections or scraping, a fancy Keloh with a piece missing, and two Boats with nice designs, one scraped, the other with the central post about to fall off     $49.00