Authenticity Guarantee

I believe it is an important duty of any dealer or auctioneer to protect his customers from counterfeit numismatic items. Dealers should not only be knowledgeable in the areas in which they deal, but should seriously investigate any suspicious item which they own, and encourage their customers to voice their doubts about any questionable item they purchase. I do not view questions about in this area as a challenge to my own knowledgeability or ethics, and I always seek to separate questions of authenticity from considerations of personal financial loss. It is in the best interests of the hobby to detect and denounce forgeries as early as possible.
Since I deal in a wide array of unusual numismatic material, much of it imported directly, I take special pains to check doubtful pieces and troublesome categories before offering them for sale. I have developed my own expert contacts for authentication in various fields.
Conditions of Guarantee


Any item I sell may be returned for any or no reason within ten days of receipt. If you have doubts about authenticity, please let me know. Beyond ten days, please contact me prior to returning the item. I may already have checked another piece from the same hoard or group, or have shown your piece to experts. If I feel that reasonable doubt remains, I may offer to have the piece examined at my own expense. Alternatively, I may either ask you to return the piece along with copies of any written opinions you have obtained, or recommend that you send it to an authentication service. If you wish to pursue your own investigations, please request an extension of the return privilege beyond the ten day period.

Proof of Counterfeit

With the exceptions noted below, I will accept as proof of counterfeit any definitive opinion from any recognized authentication service, unless a contrary opinion from that or another service also exists. No ruling and qualified opinions can not be accepted as proof, but will be considered as per below. I will pay all authentication and postage costs for any item receiving a definitive negative ruling, up to a limit of $30 per coin. I must weigh as I see fit the opinions of museum employees, and other dealers regardless of their reputations or credentials. I take most seriously opinions in this format: Written, acknowledging that the piece has been examined directly (not an image), listing factors leading to conclulsion, giving credentials or experience with the series in question, signed, with name and contact information.


In certain esoteric areas my own contacts may be able to provide better expert opinion than the authentication services. I would not consider authentication service rulings definitive for these countries/categories and others which I may designate in my literature: cast China, cast Korea, pre-Meiji Japan, Vietnam, odd & curious monies. In these areas, and for items for which a definitive ruling from an authentication service is not available, I will seek the opinions of experts known to me and consider all such opinions in order to reach a good-faith decision on genuineness. All such opinions will be available to the purchaser of the piece, though identities of experts may be withheld at their request.

Contemporary Copies & Conservative Types

Since the farming out of mints was a common practice in the Orient, it is not always possible to distinguish between authorized issues of private mintage and contemporary forgeries. When ascertainable, I will do my best to designate these in offerings, but due to the difficulties and cost of research, contemporary copies before 1350 AD sold for under $20 are excluded from this guarantee. Conservative types, which purport to a certain issuer or period of issue but are known to have been produced later or by others, officially or privately, are not considered counterfeit (e.g. Indian gold fannams.) Odd & curious / primitive / ethnographic monies present special problems of authentication, as most such objects have no official issuers. In cases where a given object was made after such items ceased to be used as money, or for purposes other than monetary, I will endeavor to note this in offerings, but such objects will not be considered counterfeit. In all other cases, primitive monies are fully covered by this guarantee.


These are a sideline for me. I have no particular expertise in detection of faked antiquities, and rely primarily on the integrity and knowledge of my suppliers. I will avoid dealing in areas where fakery is particularly rampant (e.g. Amerind items). Claims of counterfeit for artifacts must include some reasonable grounds for suspicion, preferably opinion from a knowledgeable third party. I will be relatively liberal in accepting returns in this category.

Designated Counterfeits

I regard counterfeits of all sorts, so designated, to be useful additions to an advanced collections, and legitimate objects of commerce. This guarantee does not apply to any item designated as counterfeit or questionable, or where negative opinion is made known to the purchaser at time of sale. I will stamp all modern collector-oriented forgeries and other deceptive forgeries COPY with a steel die before sale.

Misattribution and Repaired Coins

I try to be accurate in attribution and vigilant in regard to repaired coins, but such items should be returned under the normal ten-day unconditional return privilege. At my option I will refund or replace later, but this may depend on the actions of my own supplier.


When a piece proves counterfeit I may, at my option, replace it with a genuine example in equal or better grade of an item which fits the description of the item originally sold. This will be done within six months of the return of the counterfeit item or of its decertification by an authentication service, whichever is later. I may elect instead to make a cash refund of the original purchase price.

Other Conditions

There is no time limit on this guarantee. It is transferable to any subsequent owner of any item purchased from me, though I may require proof of purchase. I am not liable for any amount beyond the original purchase price regardless of market value at time of refund, or time elapsed. Items which have been cleaned or altered since purchase will be subject to this guarantee only at my option.

Published Notice & Suppression of Counterfeits

Should I discover that an item I have sold is counterfeit and be unable to identify and contact buyer(s) individually, I will make an announcement in my next pricelist at the point where the item would normally be offered. I will also publish information on particular fakes or problem areas, and cooperate fully with those who publish such information responsibly.